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Definition 

A frame diagram is a generic problem diagram capturing such a problem pattern is called a frame.

Instead of writing problem diagrams from scratch for every problem world we need to delimit, we might predefine a number of frequent problem patterns. A specific problem diagram can then be obtained in matching situations by instantiating the corresponding pattern (Jackson, 2001). This is another illustration of the knowledge reuse technique 

Explanation 

The interface labels are now typed parameters; they are prefixed by 'C''E' or 'Y', depending on whether they are to be instantiated to casual, event or symbolic phenomena, respectively. 


A generic component in a frame diagram can be further annotated by its type:

Causal Component

A component marked by a 'C', has some internal causality that can be enforced, e.g. it reacts predictably in response to external stimuli. A machine component is intrinsically causal. 

Biddable Component

 A  component marked by a 'B', has no such enforceable causality, e.g. it consists of people.

Lexical Component

A component, marked by an 'X', is a symbolic representation of data.

The upper part shows two frame diagrams. The one on the left-hand side represents the Simple Workpieces frame. It captures a problem class where a machine is a tool allowing a user to generate information that can be analysed and used for other purposes. The frame diagram on the right-hand side represents the Information Display frame. It captures a problem class where the machine must present information in a required form to environment components

The frame diagram specifies that the information machine component monitors a causal phenomenon C1 from the RealWorld component and produces an event phenomenon E2 for a Display component as a result. The requirement constraining the latter component is a generic accuracy requirement, as indicated by the ' .....,• symbol; it prescribes that the information displayed should accurately reflect a causal phenomenon C3 from the RealWorld component. 
Frame Diagram

The lower part shows corresponding frame instantiations yielding problem diagrams. The phenomenon instantiations, compatible with the corresponding p~rameter type, are shown on the bottom. The component instantiations, compatible with the corresponding Component type, are annotated with the name of the generic component to indicate their role in the frame instantiation. For example, the instantiated right-hand side requirement states that the notified meeting date and location must be the one determined by the Scheduler component.

Other frames can be similarly defined and instantiated, for example for problems where the environment behaviours must be controlled by the machine in accordance with commands issued by an operator, or for problems where the machine must transform input data into output data (Jackson, 2001).

Context and problem diagrams provide a simple, convenient notation for delimiting the scope of the system-to-be in terms of components relevant to the problem world and their static interconnections. There is a price to pay for such simplicity. The properties of the interaction between pairs of components are not made precise. The granularity of components and the criteria for a component to appear in a diagram are not very clear either. 


For example

A network component might be part of the problem world of scheduling meetings involving participants who are geographically distributed. According to which precise criteria should this component appear or not. Problem diagrams may also become clumsy for large sets of requirements. 

How do we compose or decompose them? What properties must be preserved under composition or decomposition? we will come back to those issues. A more precise semantics will be given for components and connections, providing criteria for identifying and refining components and interconnections. We will also see there how the / useful view offered by context and problem diagrams can be derived systematically from goal diagrams.



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Problem diagrams

A context diagram can be further detailed by indicating explicitly which component controls a shared phenomenon, which component constitutes the machine we need to build, and which components are affected by which requirements. The resulting diagram is called a problem diagram (Jackson, 2001).

A problem diagram excerpt for the meeting scheduling system. A rectangle with a double vertical stripe represents the machine we need to build. A rectangle with a single stripe represents a component to be designed. An interface can be declared separately; the exclamation mark after a component name prefixing a declaration indicates that this component controls the phenomena in the declared set.

 For example

 The f label declaration  states that the Scheduler machine controls the phenomena determineDate and determineLocation. A dashed oval represents a requirement. It may be connected to a component through a dashed line, to indicate that the requirement refers to it, or by· a dashed arrow, to indicate that the requirement constrains it. Such connections may be labelled as well to indicate which corresponding phenomena are referenced or constrained by the requirement. 
problem diagram

For example

 The h label declaration  indicates that the requirement appearing there constrains the phenomena Date and Location controlled by the Scheduler machine.
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Definition
A context diagram is a simple graph where nodes represent system components and edges represent connections through shared phenomena declared by the labels (DeMarco, 1978; Jackson, 2001).

For example

The Initiator component controls the meetingRequest event, whereas the Scheduler component monitors it; the Scheduler component controls the constraintsRequest event, whereas the Participant component controls the constraintsSent event.

context diagram
A component in general does not interact with all other components. A context diagram provides a simple visualization of the direct environment of each component; that is, the set of 'neighbour' components with which it interacts, together with their respective interfaces.
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You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C#. Thus a programmer can use operators with user-defined types as well. Overloaded operators are functions with special names the keyword operator followed by the symbol for the operator being defined. similar to any other function, an overloaded operator has a return type and a parameter list.

For example:

using System;
public class Program
{
 int x, y, z;
 public Program()
 {
 x = y = z = 0;
 }
 public Program(int i, int j, int k)
 {
 x = i;
 y = j;
 z = k;
 }
 public static Program operator +(Program a, Program b)
 {
 Program c = new Program();
 c.x = a.x + b.x;
 c.y = a.y + b.y;
 c.z = a.y + b.y;
 return c;
 }
 public static Program operator -(Program a, Program b)
 {
 Program c = new Program();
 c.x = a.x - b.x;
 c.y = a.y - b.y;
 c.z = a.y - b.y;
 return c;
 }
 public void show()
 {
 Console.WriteLine(x + " , " + y + " , " + z);
 }
}
class second
 {
 static void Main(string[] args)
 {
 Program n1 = new Program(1,2,3);
 Program n2 = new Program(10,10,10);
 Program n3 = new Program();
 Console.WriteLine("here is n1");
 n1.show();
 Console.WriteLine("here is n2");
 n2.show();
 n3 = n1 + n2;
 Console.WriteLine("Result of n1 + n2");
 
 n3.show();
 n3 = n1 + n2+n3;
 Console.WriteLine("Result of n1 + n2 + n3");
 n3.show();

 n3 = n3 - n1;
 Console.WriteLine("Result of n3 - n1");
 n3.show();
 n3 = n3 - n2;
 Console.WriteLine("Result of n3 - n2");
 n3.show();

 }
 }
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Definition :

 Inconsistencies are the rule that  violate a consistency rule that links them explicitly or implicitly.

Types of inconsistency

Different types of consistency rule define different types of inconsistency: 


  • Terminology clash
  • Designation clash 
  • Structure clash
  • Strong conflict
  • Week conflict

Terminology clash

 The same concept is given different names in different statements.  For example, one statement states some condition for 'participating' in a meeting whereas another statement states an apparently similar or related condition for 'attending' a meeting. 

Designation clash

The same name designates different concepts in different statements. For example, one stakeholder interprets 'meeting participation' as full participation until the meeting ends, whereas another interprets it as partial participation. 

Structure clash

The same concept is given different structures in different statements. For example, one statement speaks of a participant's excluded dates as 'a set of time points', whereas another speaks of it as 'a set of time intervals'

Strong conflict

 There are statements that cannot be satisfied when taken together; their logical conjunction evaluates to false in all circumstances. This amounts to classical inconsistency in logic. In our meeting scheduler, there would be a strong conflict between one statement stating that 'the constraints of a participant may not be disclosed to anyone else' and another stating that 'the meeting initiator should know the participants' constraints'. (Those statements might originate from stakeholders having the participant's and initiator's viewpoint, respectively.) 

Weak conflict or divergence. There are statements that are not satisfiable together under some condition. This condition, called a boundary condition, captures a particular combination of circumstances that makes the statements strongly conflicting when it becomes true. The boundary condition must be feasible; that is, it can be made true

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Q No. 1 Write a program that takes a quadratic equation as input and return whether it has two distinct roots, a double root, or not roots Using if else Condition.

Solution:
1

Q No.2  write a program that reads a number, check if this number is divisible by 4 then display “OK”, otherwise display “ failure “.


Solution.

Q No.3 Write a program to display alphabet pattern like 'U' with an asterisk.
Solution:


Q No.4 Create a program to ask the user for a symbol and answer if it is a (lowercase) vowel, a digit, or any other symbol, using "switch".

Solution:

 
Q No.5 write an application that keeps track of our grocery list. It should save our grocery needs into an array, and then print the grocery list out for us when we run the application
 "eggs", "milk", "bread", "bananas", "cereal", "rice", "yogurt"

Solution:


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Make a program that associates all 26 English alphabets A-Z with the index 1-26. User will enter a number from 1 to 26 and it will show the associated alphabet.

Solution:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace alpha
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Enter Number");
            while (true)
            {

                int number = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
                char[] alpha = { ' ', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j', 'k', 'l', 'm', 'n', 'o', 'p', 'q', 'r', 's', 't', 'u', 'v', 'w', 'x', 'y', 'z' };

                if (number > 0 && number <= 26)
                {
                    for (int i = 1; i <= alpha.Length; i++)
                    {
                        if (i == number)
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(alpha[i].ToString());
                        }
                    }

                }
                else
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Invalid input");
                }

            }
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }
}


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Create a new C# project and create a program that assigns values to the specific variables after checking that whether the input is integer, float, signed or unsigned.

Solution:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace alphabet
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {

            string a;
            Console.WriteLine("Enter the a");
            int result1;
            float result2;

            a = Console.ReadLine();

            if (int.TryParse(a, out result1) == true)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Moved to int");

            }
            else if (float.TryParse(a, out result2) == true)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Moved to float");
            }

            Console.ReadLine();
        }

    }

}

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Write a program for a calculator that will be able to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Make a main menu. It should take float values from user as inputs and display outputs as a string after performing selected operation.

Solution:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace calculator
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            float a, b,c, result;
            Console.WriteLine("Add Sub Mult Div\n ");
            Console.WriteLine("Enter the a");
                a = float.Parse(Console.ReadLine());
            Console.WriteLine("Enter the b");
            b = float.Parse(Console.ReadLine());
            Console.WriteLine("1 for Add\n 2 for Sub\n 3 f0r Mult\n 4 for Div\n ");
            Console.WriteLine("Enter the c");
            c = float.Parse(Console.ReadLine());
           
            if (c==1)
            {
                result= a + b;
                Console.WriteLine(result);
            }
            if (c==2)
            {
                result = a - b;
                Console.WriteLine(result);
            }
            if (c==3)
            {
                result = a * b;
                Console.WriteLine(result);
            }
            if (c==4)
            {
                result = a / b;
                Console.WriteLine(result);

            }
            Console.ReadLine();

           

        }
    }
}



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The calculator is a type of electronic device used to do mathematical calculations. Originally, it can only executes the basic mathematical functions such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The advancement of technology led to the development of Handheld Scientific Calculators and Online Scientific Calculators.

Online Scientific Calculators

A scientific calculator is a handheld calculator that is designed to solve problems in the field of sciences, mathematics, engineering and more. The remarkable change in the technology because of the advent of the internet gave birth to online scientific calculators. Calculations can now be performed for free on the internet without the need of buying a handheld scientific calculator device. The Online Scientific Calculator is a very essential tool because it can do all sorts of complex mathematical calculations very quickly as long as there is an internet connection. It is very easy to take advantage of its uses anywhere for free because it can be used as long as connected to the internet via Data, Wi-Fi or any other internet connection using a desktop, laptop, tablet or smart phone. Moreover, it is very user-friendly. Its interface is the same as the handheld calculator.

Online Scientific Calculator help lessen the difficulty of answering problems and for both students and professionals alike. Accurate calculations can be brought out by using this great online tool. Mathematical problems can be solved repeatedly quickly and without any difficulty. Thus, it is a great instrument for developing new technologies for students, engineers, scientists, and more.

Free Online Scientific Calculator is available for fast and easy solving of problems, which helps in saving time for both students and professionals. One best Online Scientific Calculator is  Scientific Calculator from EEweb. eCalc is a free and easy to use scientific calculator that supports many advanced features including unit conversion, equation solving, and even complex-number math. eCalc is offered as both a free online calculator and as a downloadable calculator.


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This is the simple program for twitter post analysis in this program analysis latest tweet on twitter 

Note: First Install Library tweepy into your PC than run it

Program :

import tweepy
from textblob import TextBlob
consumer_key='t4kfKNpNLojrcLD5BQVJsZ6FV'
consumer_secret='izwKDPBjeZAUCcKFjhU9F7EUFYVQaieTSMsSg0cJLb3zNcbNhW'
access_token='2444042389-BLj6mrSj2k1HfGWnJMDAp92yXmIuPjGwitZ8NHk'
access_token_secret='jvcDI5GjW69tteEG816e4OA1wpOR04hz277mmqUnO9hQT'
auth=tweepy.OAuthHandler
auth=tweepy.OAuthHandler(consumer_key,consumer_secret)
auth.set_access_token(access_token,access_token_secret)
api=tweepy.API(auth)
public_tweets=api.search('@twitterusername') #like Zubairsaif700
for tweet in public_tweets:
    print(tweet.text)
    analysis=TextBlob(tweet.text)
    print(analysis.sentiment)

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if we put some alphabets then the program show that  capital lattes or small letters.  vowels and Consonants.

Solution :

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main () {


    char ch;
    int isLowercaseVowel, isUppercaseVowel;

   
     cout<<"Enter any character: "<<endl;
     cin>>ch;
 
    if(ch>=65&&ch<=90)
        
   cout<<endl<<"You entered an uppercase character"<<endl;
    else
    
     if(ch>=48&&ch<=57)
     
        cout<<endl<<"You entered a digit"<<endl;
        
    else 
    
  if(ch>=97&&ch<=122)
  
        cout<<endl<<"You entered a lowercase character"<<endl;
        
    else
    
        cout<<endl<<"You entered a special character"<<endl;
        
        if( (ch>='a' && ch<='z') || (ch>='A' && ch<='Z'))
        
        cout<<"You entered an alphabet."<<ch<<endl;
        
    else
        cout<<"You entered  not an alphabet."<<ch<<endl;
        
        isLowercaseVowel = (ch == 'a' || ch == 'e' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'o' || ch == 'u');

         // evaluates to 1 (true) if c is an uppercase vowel
        isUppercaseVowel = (ch == 'A' || ch == 'E' || ch == 'I' || ch == 'O' || ch == 'U');
        
       if (isLowercaseVowel || isUppercaseVowel)
       
        cout<<"yor given character  is a vowel."<< ch<<endl;
        
     else
        cout<<"yor given character is a consonant."<<ch<<endl;
        
    return 0;
  
}
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Turn your Windows 10 PC into a mobile hotspot by sharing your Internet connection with other devices over Wi-Fi. You can share a Wi-Fi, Ethernet, or cellular data connection. If your PC has a cellular data connection and you share it, it will use data from your data plan.

  • Press the windows key +I
  • Select the menu Network & Internet
  • then select Mobile Hotspot from Menu 
  • For Share my Internet connection from, choose the Internet connection you want to share.
  • Select Edit > enter a new network name and password > Save.

Like this 
Use your PC as a mobile hotspot in windows 10

Turn on Share my Internet connection with other devices.
To connect on the other device, go to the Wi-Fi settings on that device, find your network name, select it, enter the password, and then connect.

Wi-Fi settings


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Google has officially released the stable version 53 of its Chrome browser. It introduces a redesigned user interface in the style of "material" design. In particular, the external transformation got tabs, icons and other interface elements. In addition, the update brings a dark theme for the regime "Incognito". Users of Windows 10 will notice that the browser now supports OS Emoji and also include new feature in google developer tools .
Google has updated Chrome with great attention to energy consumption


As for the really important changes, the company claims that with the release of a new version of Chrome is faster, and along with it has become more sparing consume CPU resources and GPU when playing video, which has a positive impact on the energy efficiency of your browser.Finally, the update also improves the use of the browser on displays with high pixel density (HiDPI).

If the update has not yet been established automatically, you can install it manually by going to the Help → About the browser Google Chrome in the settings panel.